Sunday, 19 July 2015

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE - SCIENCE


Inventions & Discoveries

INVENTION
YEAR
INVENTOR
COUNTRY




Artificial Heart
1957
Willem Kolff
Netherlands
Atomic Bomb
1945
J. Robert Oppenheimer
USA
Atomic Theory
1803
Dalton
Britain
Automatic Riffle
1918
John Browning
USA
Ball Point Pen
1888
John J. Loud
USA
Barometer
1644
Evangelista Torricelli
Italy
Bicycle
1839-40
Kirkpatrick Macmillian
Britain
Bifocal Lens
1780
Benajamin Franklin
USA
Bunsen Burner
1855
R Willhelm Von Bunsen
Germany
Calculus
1670
Newton
Britain
Cloning, DNA
1973
Boyer, Cohen
USA
Diesel Engine
1895
Rudolf Diesel
Germany
Dynamo
1832
Hypolite Pixii
France
Electron
1897
Thomas J.
Britain
Fountain Pen
1884
Lewis E. Waterman
USA
Galvanometer
1834
Andre-Marie Ampere
France
Gramophone
1878
Thomas Alva Edison
USA
Hydrogen Bomb
1952
Edward Teller
USA
Intelligence Testing
1905
Simon Binet
France
Laser
1960
Theodore Maiman
USA
Lift (Mechanical)
1852
Elisha G Otis
USA
Lighting Conductor
1752
Benjamin Franklin
USA
Logarithms
1614
Napier
Britain
Microphone
1876
Alexander Graham Bell
USA
Movie Projector
1893
Thomas Edison
USA
Pacemaker
1952
Zoll
USA
Pasteurization
1867
Louis Pasteur
France
Periodic table
1869
Mendeleyev
Russia
Pistol, Revolver
1836
Colt
USA
Printing Press
1455
Johann Gutenberg
Germany
Proton
1919
Rutherford
New Zealand
Quantum Theory
1900
Plank
Germany
Radar
1922
AH Taylor & Leo C Young
USA
Radiocarbon Dating
1947
Libby
USA
Relativity Theory
1905
Einstein
Germany
Stethoscope
1819
Laennec
France
Telegraph Code
1837
Samuel FB Morse
USA
Telescope
1608
Hans Lippershey
Netherlands
Television (Mechanical)
1926
John Logie Baird
Britain
Transformer
1831
Michael Faraday
Britain
Transistor
1948
Bardeen, Shockley & Brattain
USA
Wireless (Telegraphy)
1896
G Marconi
Italy
X-Ray
1895
WK Roentgen
Germany


Milestones in Medicine

DISCOVERY / INVENTION
YEAR
DISCOVERER / INVENTOR
COUNTRY
Aspirin
1889
Dreser
Germany
Ayurveda
2000-1000 BC
--
India
Bacteria
1683
Leeuwenhock
Netherlands
Biochemistry
1648
Jan Baptista Van Helmont
Belgium
Blood Plasma storage (Blood Bank)
1940
Drew
USA
Blood Transfusion
1625
Jean-Baptista Denys
France
Chemotherapy
1493-1541
Paracelsus
Switzerland
Circulation of Blood
1628
William Harvey
Britain
Heart Transplant Surgery
1967
Christian Barnard
South Africa
Penicillin
1928
Alexander Fleming
Britain
Rabies Vaccine
1860
Louis Pasteur
France
Rh-Factor
1940
Karl Landsteiner
USA
Vaccination
1796
Edward Jenner
Britain
Vaccine, Polio
1954
Jonas Salk
USA
Vaccine, Polio-oral
1960
Albert Sabin
USA
Vaccine, Rabies
1885
Louis Pasteur
France
Yoga
200-100 BC
Patanjali
India

Unit of Measurement

QUANTITY
UNIT (SI)
QUANTITY
UNIT (SI)
Length
Meter


Time
Second


Mass
Kilogram
Heat
Joule
Area
Square Meter
Temperature
Kelvin
Volume
Cubic Meter
Absolute Temperature
Kelvin
Velocity
Meter/Second
Resistance
Ohm
Acceleration
Meter/Second Square
Electric Current
Ampere
Density
Kilogram Meter/Cube
Electromotive Force
Volt
Momentum
Kilogram Meter/Second


Work
Joule
Electric Energy
Kilo Watt Hour
Energy
Joule
Electric Power
Kilo Watt or Watt
Force
Newton


Pressure
Pascal or Newton/Sq Meter
Charge
Coulombo
Frequency
Hertz


Power
Watt
Luminous Flux
Candela
Weight
Newton or Kilogram
Intensity of Sound
Decibel
Impulse
Newton-Second
Power of lens
Depth of sea
Dioptre
Fathom




Important Scientific Instruments

INSTRUMENT
USES
Altimeter
It measures altitudes and is used in aircrafts
Ammeter
It measures strength of electric current (in amperes)
Anemometer
It measures force and velocity of wind
Audiometer
It measures intensity of sound
Audio phone
It is used for improving imperfect sense of hearing
Barometer
It measures atmospheric pressure
Binocular
It is used to view distant objects
Dynamo
It converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
Fathometer
It measures the depth of the ocean
Hydrometer
It measures the specific gravity of liquids
Hygrometer
It measure humidity in air
Lactometer
It determines the purity of milk
Microphone
It converts the sound waves into electrical vibrations and to magnify the sound
Microscope
It is used to obtain magnifies view of small objects
Periscope
It is used of view objects above sea level (used in sub-marines)
Pyrometer
It measures very high temperature
Radar
It is used to detecting the direction and range of an approaching plane by means of radio microwaves.
Seismograph
It measures the intensity of earthquakes shocks
Stethoscope
An instrument which is used by the doctors to hear and analyses heart and lungs sounds
Telescope
It views distant objects in space
Thermometer
It is used for the measurement of temperatures
Voltmeter
It measures the electric potential difference between two points

Different Branches of Science

BRANCH
CONCERNING FIELDS
Aeronautics
Sciences of Flights
Astronomy
Study of heavenly bodies
Apiculture
Honey Industry (Bee Keeping)
Biochemistry
Deals with the study of chemical reactions in relation to life activities.
Biotechnology
Deals with the use of micro-organisms in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as Drugs, Vaccines, Hormones, Etc. on a large scale
Cardiology
Study of Heart
Dermatology
Study of Skin
Ecology
Study of relationship between Organisms & Environment
Entomology
Study of Insects
Eugenics
Study of improvement of human race by applying laws of heredity. It is related with future generations
Floriculture
Study of Flowers yielding plants
Geology
Study of condition and structure of the earth
Genetics
Study of heredity and variations
Gerontology
Study of growing old
Gynecology
Study of female reproductive organ
Horticulture
Study of garden cultivation
Iconography
Teaching by pictures & models
Immunology
Science which deals with the study of resistance of organisms against infection
Jurisprudence
Science of Law
Lexicography
Compiling of dictionary
Neurology
Study of nervous system
Numismatics
Study of coins and medals
Obstetrics
Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy
Ophthalmology
Study of eyes
Ornithology
Study of birds
Paleontology
Study of fossils
Philately
Stamp Collecting
Phonetics
Concerning the sounds of a spoken language
Pathology
Study of disease causing organisms
Physiology
Science dealing with the study of functions of various parts of organisms
Pisciculture
Study of fish
Pomology
Study of fruits
Seismology
Study of earthquakes
Sericulture
Silk Industry (Culture of silk moth & pupa)
Telepathy
Communication between two minds at a distance with the help of emotions, thoughts and feelings.



Some Important Facts of Human Body

Number of cells in body
75 Trillions
Longest Bone
Femur (Thigh Bone)
Smallest Bone
Ear ossicle, stapes
Blood Volume
6.8 liters (in70 kg body)
Normal BP
120/80 mm Hg
Life Span of RBC
120 days
Life span of WBC
3-4 days
Universal blood donor
O Rh-ve
Universal blood recipient
AB
Average body weight
70 kg
Normal body temperature
98.4* F or 37*C
Dental formula
Adult: 2123/2123=32
Child:2120/2120=22 milk teeth
Gestation
9 months (253-266 days)
Largest Gland
Liver
Largest muscle in the body
Gluteus Maximus (Buttock Muscles)
Longest Cell
Neuron  (nerve cell)
Menstrual Cycle
28 days
Minimum distance for proper vision
25 cm
pH of urine
6.0


NUTUTION

The components:  Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins, water and Roughage.

Carbohydrates:

·         Constitutes 3 elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
·         Main source of energy providers
·         1 gm., gives 17kg of energy (or 4.1 Kcal of energy)

Fats:

·         Provides twice the energy of carbohydrates (1gm provides 37 KJ of energy)
·         An enzyme called Lipase digests fats. It breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol
·         Daily requirement: 50 gms

Proteins:

·         Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen
·         Important for growth and repair of the body
·         Made up of Amino acids
·         Kwashiorkor and Marasmus are the disease which occur due to deficiency of protein
The salve of Ca required by our body is Ca3 (PO4)2

Vitamin:

·         Necessary for normal growth, good health, good vision, proper digestion of the body etc. They do not provide energy to our body.
·         Vitamins can be divided into 2 categories:
a.       Water-soluble: Vitamin B-complex, Vitamin C
b.      Fat-soluble: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K


VITAMIN
CHEMICAL NAME
PROPERTY
DEFICIENCY DISEASE
A
Retinol
General health giving vitamin, can be stored in liver
Night Blindness
B1
Thiamine
For growth, carbohydrates metabolism, functioning of heart
Beriberi
B2
Riboflavin
For keeping skin and mouth healthy
Cheilosis
C
Ascorbic Acid
For keeping teeth, gums and joints healthy. Gets destroyed on heating
Scurvy
D
Calciferol
For normal bones and teeth, can be stored in liver
Rickets
E
Tocopherol
For normal reproduction, removes scars and wrinkles
Sterility
K
Phylloquinone
For normal clotting of blood
Hemophilia


Water:

·         Important in digestion, transportation excretion and to regulate body temperature (body contains 65% water)

Roughage:

·         Fibrous material present in the cell wall of plants
·         Mainly contains cellulose
·         It doesn’t provide energy but only helps in retaining water in the body

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